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7.9 — The stack and the heap

The memory that a program uses is typically divided into a few different areas, called segments:

  • The code segment (also called a text segment), where the compiled program sits in memory. The code segment is typically read-only.
  • The bss segment (also called the uninitialized data segment), where zero-initialized global and static variables are stored.
  • The data segment (also called the initialized data segment), where initialized global and static variables are stored.
  • The heap, where dynamically allocated variables are allocated from.
  • The call stack, where function parameters, local variables, and other function-related information are stored.

For this lesson, we’ll focus primarily on the heap and the stack, as that is where most of the interesting stuff takes place.

The heap segment

The heap segment (also known as the “free store”) keeps track of memory used for dynamic memory allocation. We talked about the heap a bit already in lesson 6.9 -- Dynamic memory allocation with new and delete, so this will be a recap.

In C++, when you use the new operator to allocate memory, this memory is allocated in the application’s heap segment.

The address of this memory is passed back by operator new, and can then be stored in a pointer. You do not have to worry about the mechanics behind the process of how free memory is located and allocated to the user. However, it is worth knowing that sequential memory requests may not result in sequential memory addresses being allocated!

When a dynamically allocated variable is deleted, the memory is “returned” to the heap and can then be reassigned as future allocation requests are received. Remember that deleting a pointer does not delete the variable, it just returns the memory at the associated address back to the operating system.

The heap has advantages and disadvantages:

  • Allocating memory on the heap is comparatively slow.
  • Allocated memory stays allocated until it is specifically deallocated (beware memory leaks) or the application ends (at which point the OS should clean it up).
  • Dynamically allocated memory must be accessed through a pointer. Dereferencing a pointer is slower than accessing a variable directly.
  • Because the heap is a big pool of memory, large arrays, structures, or classes can be allocated here.

The call stack

The call stack (usually referred to as “the stack”) has a much more interesting role to play. The call stack keeps track of all the active functions (those that have been called but have not yet terminated) from the start of the program to the current point of execution, and handles allocation of all function parameters and local variables.

The call stack is implemented as a stack data structure. So before we can talk about how the call stack works, we need to understand what a stack data structure is.

The stack data structure

A data structure is a programming mechanism for organizing data so that it can be used efficiently. You’ve already seen several types of data structures, such as arrays and structs. Both of these data structures provide mechanisms for storing data and accessing that data in an efficient way. There are many additional data structures that are commonly used in programming, quite a few of which are implemented in the standard library, and a stack is one of those.

Consider a stack of plates in a cafeteria. Because each plate is heavy and they are stacked, you can really only do one of three things:
1) Look at the surface of the top plate
2) Take the top plate off the stack (exposing the one underneath, if it exists)
3) Put a new plate on top of the stack (hiding the one underneath, if it exists)

In computer programming, a stack is a container data structure that holds multiple variables (much like an array). However, whereas an array lets you access and modify elements in any order you wish (called random access), a stack is more limited. The operations that can be performed on a stack correspond to the three things mentioned above:

1) Look at the top item on the stack (usually done via a function called top(), but sometimes called peek())
2) Take the top item off of the stack (done via a function called pop())
3) Put a new item on top of the stack (done via a function called push())

A stack is a last-in, first-out (LIFO) structure. The last item pushed onto the stack will be the first item popped off. If you put a new plate on top of the stack, the first plate removed from the stack will be the plate you just pushed on last. Last on, first off. As items are pushed onto a stack, the stack grows larger -- as items are popped off, the stack grows smaller.

For example, here’s a short sequence showing how pushing and popping on a stack works:

Stack: empty
Push 1
Stack: 1
Push 2
Stack: 1 2
Push 3
Stack: 1 2 3
Pop
Stack: 1 2
Pop
Stack: 1

The plate analogy is a pretty good analogy as to how the call stack works, but we can make a better analogy. Consider a bunch of mailboxes, all stacked on top of each other. Each mailbox can only hold one item, and all mailboxes start out empty. Furthermore, each mailbox is nailed to the mailbox below it, so the number of mailboxes can not be changed. If we can’t change the number of mailboxes, how do we get a stack-like behavior?

First, we use a marker (like a post-it note) to keep track of where the bottom-most empty mailbox is. In the beginning, this will be the lowest mailbox (on the bottom of the stack). When we push an item onto our mailbox stack, we put it in the mailbox that is marked (which is the first empty mailbox), and move the marker up one mailbox. When we pop an item off the stack, we move the marker down one mailbox (so it’s pointed at the top non-empty mailbox) and remove the item from that mailbox. Anything below the marker is considered “on the stack”. Anything at the marker or above the marker is not on the stack.

The call stack segment

The call stack segment holds the memory used for the call stack. When the application starts, the main() function is pushed on the call stack by the operating system. Then the program begins executing.

When a function call is encountered, the function is pushed onto the call stack. When the current function ends, that function is popped off the call stack. Thus, by looking at the functions pushed on the call stack, we can see all of the functions that were called to get to the current point of execution.

Our mailbox analogy above is fairly analogous to how the call stack works. The stack itself is a fixed-size chunk of memory addresses. The mailboxes are memory addresses, and the “items” we’re pushing and popping on the stack are called stack frames. A stack frame keeps track of all of the data associated with one function call. We’ll talk more about stack frames in a bit. The “marker” is a register (a small piece of memory in the CPU) known as the stack pointer (sometimes abbreviated “SP”). The stack pointer keeps track of where the top of the call stack currently is.

The only difference between our hypothetical mailbox stack and the call stack is that when we pop an item off the call stack, we don’t have to erase the memory (the equivalent of emptying the mailbox). We can just leave it to be overwritten by the next item pushed to that piece of memory. Because the stack pointer will be below that memory location, we know that memory location is not on the stack.

The call stack in action

Let’s examine in more detail how the call stack works. Here is the sequence of steps that takes place when a function is called:

  1. The program encounters a function call.
  2. A stack frame is constructed and pushed on the stack. The stack frame consists of:
    • The address of the instruction beyond the function call (called the return address). This is how the CPU remembers where to return to after the called function exits.
    • All function arguments.
    • Memory for any local variables.
    • Saved copies of any registers modified by the function that need to be restored when the function returns
  3. The CPU jumps to the function’s start point.
  4. The instructions inside of the function begin executing.

When the function terminates, the following steps happen:

  1. Registers are restored from the call stack
  2. The stack frame is popped off the stack. This frees the memory for all local variables and arguments.
  3. The return value is handled.
  4. The CPU resumes execution at the return address.

Return values can be handled in a number of different ways, depending on the computer’s architecture. Some architectures include the return value as part of the stack frame. Others use CPU registers.

Typically, it is not important to know all the details about how the call stack works. However, understanding that functions are effectively pushed on the stack when they are called and popped off when they return gives you the fundamentals needed to understand recursion, as well as some other concepts that are useful when debugging.

A technical note: on some architectures, the call stack grows away from memory address 0. On others, it grows towards memory address 0. As a consequence, newly pushed stack frames may have a higher or a lower memory address than the previous ones.

A quick and dirty call stack example

Consider the following simple application:

The call stack looks like the following at the labeled points:

a:

main()

b:

foo() (including parameter x)
main()

c:

main()

Stack overflow

The stack has a limited size, and consequently can only hold a limited amount of information. On Windows, the default stack size is 1MB. On some unix machines, it can be as large as 8MB. If the program tries to put too much information on the stack, stack overflow will result. Stack overflow happens when all the memory in the stack has been allocated -- in that case, further allocations begin overflowing into other sections of memory.

Stack overflow is generally the result of allocating too many variables on the stack, and/or making too many nested function calls (where function A calls function B calls function C calls function D etc…) On modern operating systems, overflowing the stack will generally cause your OS to issue an access violation and terminate the program.

Here is an example program that will likely cause a stack overflow. You can run it on your system and watch it crash:

This program tries to allocate a huge (likely 40MB) array on the stack. Because the stack is not large enough to handle this array, the array allocation overflows into portions of memory the program is not allowed to use.

On Windows (Visual Studio), this program produces the result:

HelloWorld.exe (process 15916) exited with code -1073741571.

-1073741571 is c0000005 in hex, which is the Windows OS code for an access violation. Note that “hi” is never printed because the program is terminated prior to that point.

Here’s another program that will cause a stack overflow for a different reason:

In the above program, a stack frame is pushed on the stack every time function foo() is called. Since foo() calls itself infinitely, eventually the stack will run out of memory and cause an overflow.

The stack has advantages and disadvantages:

  • Allocating memory on the stack is comparatively fast.
  • Memory allocated on the stack stays in scope as long as it is on the stack. It is destroyed when it is popped off the stack.
  • All memory allocated on the stack is known at compile time. Consequently, this memory can be accessed directly through a variable.
  • Because the stack is relatively small, it is generally not a good idea to do anything that eats up lots of stack space. This includes passing by value or creating local variables of large arrays or other memory-intensive structures.

7.10 -- std::vector capacity and stack behavior
Index
7.8 -- Function Pointers

214 comments to 7.9 — The stack and the heap

  • yeokaiwei

    Can we have a diagram of this?

    "The code segment (also called a text segment), where the compiled program sits in memory. The code segment is typically read-only.
        The bss segment (also called the uninitialized data segment), where zero-initialized global and static variables are stored.
        The data segment (also called the initialized data segment), where initialized global and static variables are stored.
        The heap, where dynamically allocated variables are allocated from.
        The call stack, where function parameters, local variables, and other function-related information are stored. "

    Like this?
    https://nandu310.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/memorylayout.png?w=450&h=362

  • srt1104

    Can you explain further on "All memory allocated on the stack is known at compile time. Consequently, this memory can be accessed directly through a variable." Does that mean that if you call a function recursively 1000 times, the compiler at compile-time itself, would calculate all the 1000 + 1 (for main()) locations where the stack frames will be placed and you could access those addresses when compilation is done?
    What if the user enters a number and the function recurses for that number of times? That cannot be calculated at compile time.

    • nascardriver

      The compiler knows where a function's local variables are stored relative to the top of the stack. That relative location is always the same no matter how often the function is called.

  • 345h6c

    </p><h1>test</h1>

  • Kunal Mukherjee

    What is the difference between uninitialized data segment and intialized data segment, both seems to hold initialized global and static variables. Please elaborate

  • Yolo

    You said: "Memory allocated on the stack stays in scope as long as it is on the stack. It is destroyed when it is popped off the stack." But what exactly do u mean with destroyed? Memory cant get destroyed, right?

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