8.15 — Function templates with multiple template types

In lesson 8.13 -- Function templates, we wrote a function template to calculate the maximum of two values:

Now consider the following similar program:

You may be surprised to find that this program won’t compile. Instead, the compiler will issue a bunch of (probably crazy looking) error messages. On Visual Studio, the author got the following:

Project3.cpp(11,18): error C2672: 'max': no matching overloaded function found
Project3.cpp(11,28): error C2782: 'T max(T,T)': template parameter 'T' is ambiguous
Project3.cpp(4): message : see declaration of 'max'
Project3.cpp(11,28): message : could be 'double'
Project3.cpp(11,28): message : or       'int'
Project3.cpp(11,28): error C2784: 'T max(T,T)': could not deduce template argument for 'T' from 'double'
Project3.cpp(4): message : see declaration of 'max'

In our function call max(2, 3.5), we’re passing arguments of two different types: one int and one double. Because we’re making a function call without using angled brackets to specify an actual type, the compiler will first look to see if there is a non-template match for max(int, double). It won’t find one.

Next, the compiler will see if it can find a function template match (using template argument deduction, which we covered in lesson 8.14 -- Function template instantiation). However, this will also fail, for a simple reason: T can only represent a single type. There is no type for T that would allow the compiler to instantiate function template max<T>(T, T) into a function with two different parameter types. Put another way, because both parameters in the function template are of type T, they must resolve to the same actual type.

Since no non-template match was found, and no template match was found, the function call fails to resolve, and we get a compile error.

You might wonder why the compiler didn’t generate function max<double>(double, double) and then use numeric conversion to type convert the int argument to a double. The answer is simple: type conversion is done only when resolving function overloads, not when performing template argument deduction.

This lack of type conversion is intentional for at least two reasons. First, it helps keep things simple: we either find an exact match between the function call arguments and template type parameters, or we don’t. Second, it allows us to create function templates for cases where we want to ensure that two or more parameters have the same type (as in the example above).

We’ll have to find another solution. Fortunately, we can solve this problem in (at least) three ways.

Use static_cast to convert the arguments to matching types

The first solution is to put the burden on the caller to convert the arguments into matching types. For example:

Now that both arguments are of type double, the compiler will be able to instantiate max(double, double) that will satisfy this function call.

However, this solution is awkward and hard to read.

Provide an actual type

If we had written a non-template max(double, double) function, then we would be able to call max(int, double) and let the implicit type conversion rules convert our int argument into a double so the function call could be resolved:

However, when the compiler is doing template argument deduction, it won’t do any type conversions. Fortunately, we don’t have to use template argument deduction if we specify an actual type to be used instead:

In the above example, we call max<double>(2, 3.5). Because we’ve explicitly specified that T should be replaced with double, the compiler won’t use template argument deduction. Instead, it will just instantiate the function max<double>(double, double), and then type convert any mismatched arguments. Our int parameter will be implicitly converted to a double.

While this is more readable than using static_cast, it would be even nicer if we didn’t even have to think about the types when making a function call to max at all.

Functions templates with multiple template type parameters

The root of our problem is that we’ve only defined the single template type (T) for our function template, and then specified that both parameters must be of this same type.

The best way to solve this problem is to rewrite our function template in such a way that our parameters can resolve to different types. Rather than using one template type parameter T, we’ll now use two (T and U):

Because we’ve defined x with template type T, and y with template type U, x and y can now resolve their types independently. When we call max(2, 3.5), T can be an int and U can be a double. The compiler will happily instantiate max<int, double>(int, double) for us.

However, the above code still has a problem: using the usual arithmetic rules (8.4 -- Arithmetic conversions), double takes precedence over int, so our conditional operator will return a double. But our function is defined as returning a T -- in cases where T resolves to an int, our double return value will undergo a narrowing conversion to an int, which will produce a warning (and possible loss of data).

Making the return type a U instead doesn’t solve the problem, as we can always flip the order of the operands in the function call to flip the types of T and U.

How do we solve this? This is a good use for an auto return type -- we’ll let the compiler deduce what the return type should be from the return statement:

This version of max now works fine with operands of different types.

Abbreviated function templates

C++20 introduces a new use of the auto keyword: When the auto keyword is used as a parameter type in a normal function, the compiler will automatically convert the function into a function template with each auto parameter becoming an independent template type parameter. This method for creating a function template is called an abbreviated function template.

For example:

is shorthand in C++20 for the following:

which is the same as the max function template we wrote above.

In cases where you want each template type parameter to be an independent type, this form is preferred as the removal of the template parameter declaration line makes your code more concise and readable.

Best practice

Feel free to use abbreviated function templates if each auto parameter should be an independent template type (and your language standard is set to C++20 or newer).

8.x -- Chapter 8 summary and quiz
8.14 -- Function template instantiation

15 comments to 8.15 — Function templates with multiple template types

  • Jake

    It says U is undefined

    but when I try this it's fine
    was it necessary to type the template  parameter declaration
    twice given the fact that the first declaration is at file scope ?

  • Waldo Lemmer

    I'm having trouble forward declaring a function template.

    Definition in a.cpp:

    Declaration in a.h:

    Function call in main.cpp:

    I get: "a function that returns 'auto' cannot be used before it is defined"

    Can function templates that return auto not be forward declared? Or am I missing something?

    • Alex

      Functions that have an auto return type must be defined before they can be used (a forward declaration doesn't provide enough information for the compiler to know what type auto should be replaced with). This doesn't have anything to do with templates.

      I added a note about this to

  • Dylan

    Hey, I have a question. I assumed that you could use a template type for more than one function. I tried this:

    But it wouldn't compile and I got a bunch of errors. So then I tried this:

    It compiled fine, and using both functions work as expected. So is it true you have to redefine the template again before every function that uses it? Again thanks for the tutorial. It's very informative.

  • Waldo Lemmer

    Section "Provide an actual type":

    > If we had written an non-template

    should be "a"

  • Ph3r0X

    Hi Alex and Nascardriver,

    I just wanted to ask if there is a use for the form of function call with angled brackets ( foo<template_types>(arg1, arg2) ) when using independent template types, also what to do if you just want one (or more) of the arguments to be of a specific type (kind of like the default arguments)?

    Btw thanks al lot to you guys for this website, can't believe how much I've learned in a short period of time here :D.
    Hope that my question is not too stupid to ask, either way thanks for the reply in advance!

    • Alex

      > I just wanted to ask if there is a use for the form of function call with angled brackets ( foo(arg1, arg2) ) when using independent template types

      Yes, it explicitly selects the foo<template_type> function, and will do type conversion on the arguments.

      > also what to do if you just want one (or more) of the arguments to be of a specific type (kind of like the default arguments)?

      I'm not aware of a way to default template types.

    • nascardriver

      > what to do if you just want one (or more) of the arguments to be of a specific type (kind of like the default arguments)?
      Can you provide an example?

      Template parameters can be defaulted

      And you can mix them with non-template parameters

  • Zead456

    Hi Alex and nascardriver,
    In the first snippet of the lesson, the second template function instantiation is max(2, 3.5). I think you meant to make the first argument double, so the error in the following snippet will make sense.
    btw, I love your website and thankfully you just made this chapter, which imo is well positioned in this tutorial series.
    I'm still following along with the tutorial tho, currently (in the time of typing this message) in chapter 10.

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