2.1 — Introduction to functions

In the last chapter, we defined a function as a collection of statements that execute sequentially. While that is certainly true, that definition doesn’t provide much insight into why functions are useful. Let’s update our definition: A function is a reusable sequence of statements designed to do a particular job.

You already know that every program must have a function named main (which is where the program starts execution when it is run). However, as programs start to get longer and longer, putting all the code inside the main function becomes increasingly hard to manage. Functions provide a way for us to split our programs into small, modular chunks that are easier to organize, test, and use. Most programs use many functions. The C++ standard library comes with plenty of already-written functions for you to use -- however, it’s just as common to write your own. Functions that you write yourself are called user-defined functions.

Consider a case that might occur in real life: you’re reading a book, when you remember you need to make a phone call. You put a bookmark in your book, make the phone call, and when you are done with the phone call, you return to the place you bookmarked and continue your book precisely where you left off.

C++ programs can work the same way. A program will be executing statements sequentially inside one function when it encounters a function call. A function call is an expression that tells the CPU to interrupt the current function and execute another function. The CPU “puts a bookmark” at the current point of execution, and then calls (executes) the function named in the function call. When the called function ends, the CPU returns back to the point it bookmarked, and resumes execution.

The function initiating the function call is called the caller, and the function being called is the callee or called function.

An example of a user-defined function

First, let’s start with the most basic syntax to define a user defined function. For this lesson, all user-defined functions (except main) will take the following form:

return-type identifier() // identifier replaced with the name of your function
// Your code here

We’ll talk more about the different parts of this syntax in the next few lessons. For now, identifier will simply be replaced with the name of your user-defined function. The curly braces and statements in between are called the function body.

Here is a sample program that shows how a new function is defined and called:

This program produces the following output:

Starting main()
In doPrint()
Ending main()

This program begins execution at the top of function main, and the first line to be executed prints Starting main().

The second line in main is a function call to the function doPrint. We call function doPrint by appending a pair of parenthesis to the function name like such: doPrint(). Note that if you forget the parenthesis, your program may not compile (and if it does, the function will not be called).


Don’t forget to include parenthesis () after the function’s name when making a function call.

Because a function call was made, execution of statements in main is suspended, and execution jumps to the top of called function doPrint. The first (and only) line in doPrint prints In doPrint(). When doPrint terminates, execution returns back to the caller (here: function main) and resumes from the point where it left off. Consequently, the next statement executed in main prints Ending main().

Calling functions more than once

One useful thing about functions is that they can be called more than once. Here’s a program that demonstrates this:

This program produces the following output:

Starting main()
In doPrint()
In doPrint()
Ending main()

Since doPrint gets called twice by main, doPrint executes twice, and In doPrint() gets printed twice (once for each call).

Functions calling functions calling functions

You’ve already seen that function main can call another function (such as function doPrint in the example above). Any function can call any other function. In the following program, function main calls function doA, which calls function doB:

This program produces the following output:

Starting main()
Starting doA()
In doB()
Ending doA()
Ending main()

Nested functions are not supported

Unlike some other programming languages, in C++, functions cannot be defined inside other functions. The following program is not legal:

The proper way to write the above program is:

Quiz time

Question #1

In a function definition, what are the curly braces and statements in-between called?

Show Solution

Question #2

What does the following program print? Do not compile this program, just trace the code yourself.

Show Solution

2.2 -- Function return values
1.x -- Chapter 1 summary and quiz

633 comments to 2.1 — Introduction to functions

  • itsmesaz

    Hey Nascar,
    My background is mechanical, because of this pandemic i lost my job.
    Now i started learning C   in this website, It was really good for freshers to start. it was really good to understand.
    Can you suggest similar site for JAVA & SQL ?

  • itsmesaz

    Hey Nascar :)

    My profession is based on mechanical, because of this pandemic, I lost my job.
    Few days before I planned to learn C++, Java, and SQL. I got this link in GitHub. Your website is damn good. And it really very helpful for freshers to start.

    Do you have any similar platform like this for JAVA and SQL? If you have, please give me this link. I searched there are so many and it's a bit confusing to choose which one to start. I'm a beginner in this field, so guide me if you can!

    • nascardriver


      Alex is the one running learncpp. As far as I'm aware, he didn't publish any tutorials for other languages.

      If you have any questions about the lessons, feel free to ask :)

  • Nihal

    Thanks for this tutorial, because I am doing now competitive programming.This helps me so much. Thanks a lot

  • Istabi Tystab

    Hi, this code works fine but is it okay to initialize a variable with a function call or should I use a zero initialization and then a copy assignment?

  • I'm currently a technical support from a company, after my shift I go directly on this website to learn, man. In all the tutorials that I read, this is the only guide that I've become interested. I mean I tried to learn any other PL, however I think learning it is still based on the tutorial you're reading, there's a lot of tutorials in the internet but it's not like this, because I don't feel alone specially because of this comment section, it's like I'm reading this and learning this with others at the same time.

  • qwerty

    what will happen here?

  • itsArial

    I am not really sure if I should worry about the void thing when you make functions, because I don;t really yet know what it is for. If anyone can tell me I will be thankful.

  • Zach Roberts

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