11.5 — Constructors

When all members of a class (or struct) are public, we can use aggregate initialization to initialize the class (or struct) directly using an initialization list or uniform initialization:

However, as soon as we make any member variables private, we’re no longer able to initialize classes in this way. It does make sense: if you can’t directly access a variable (because it’s private), you shouldn’t be able to directly initialize it.

So then how do we initialize a class with private member variables? The answer is through constructors.


A constructor is a special kind of class member function that is automatically called when an object of that class is instantiated. Constructors are typically used to initialize member variables of the class to appropriate default or user-provided values, or to do any setup steps necessary for the class to be used (e.g. open a file or database).

Unlike normal member functions, constructors have specific rules for how they must be named:

  1. Constructors must have the same name as the class (with the same capitalization)
  2. Constructors have no return type (not even void)

Default constructors

A constructor that takes no parameters (or has parameters that all have default values) is called a default constructor. The default constructor is called if no user-provided initialization values are provided.

Here is an example of a class that has a default constructor:

This class was designed to hold a fractional value as an integer numerator and denominator. We have defined a default constructor named Fraction (the same as the class).

Because we’re instantiating an object of type Fraction with no arguments, the default constructor will be called immediately after memory is allocated for the object, and our object will be initialized.

This program produces the result:


Note that our numerator and denominator were initialized with the values we set in our default constructor! Without a default constructor, the numerator and denominator would have garbage values until we explicitly assigned them reasonable values, or initialize them by other means (remember: fundamental variables aren’t initialized by default).

Direct and uniform initialization using constructors with parameters

While the default constructor is great for ensuring our classes are initialized with reasonable default values, often times we want instances of our class to have specific values that we provide. Fortunately, constructors can also be declared with parameters. Here is an example of a constructor that takes two integer parameters that are used to initialize the numerator and denominator:

Note that we now have two constructors: a default constructor that will be called in the default case, and a second constructor that takes two parameters. These two constructors can coexist peacefully in the same class due to function overloading. In fact, you can define as many constructors as you want, so long as each has a unique signature (number and type of parameters).

So how do we use this constructor with parameters? It’s simple! We can use list or direct initialization:

As always, we prefer list initialization. We’ll discover reasons (Templates and std::initializer_list) to use direct initialization when calling constructors later in the tutorials. There is another special constructor that might make brace initialization do something different, in that case we have to use direct initialization. We’ll talk about these constructors later.

Note that we have given the second parameter of the constructor with parameters a default value, so the following is also legal:

Default values for constructors work exactly the same way as with any other functions, so in the above case where we call six{ 6 }, the Fraction(int, int) function is called with the second parameter defaulted to value 1.


Favor brace initialization to initialize class objects.

Copy initialization using equals with classes

Much like with fundamental variables, it’s also possible to initialize classes using copy initialization:

However, we recommend you avoid this form of initialization with classes, as it may be less efficient. Although direct initialization, uniform initialization, and copy initialization all work identically with fundamental types, copy-initialization does not work the same with classes (though the end-result is often the same). We’ll explore the differences in more detail in a future chapter.

Reducing your constructors

In the above two-constructor declaration of the Fraction class, the default constructor is actually somewhat redundant. We could simplify this class as follows:

Although this constructor is still a default constructor, it has now been defined in a way that it can accept one or two user-provided values as well.

When implementing your constructors, consider how you might keep the number of constructors down through smart defaulting of values.

A reminder about default parameters

The rules around defining and calling functions that have default parameters (described in lesson 10.8 -- Default arguments) apply to constructors too. To recap, when defining a function with default parameters, all default parameters must follow any non-default parameters, ie. there cannot be a non-defaulted parameters after a defaulted parameter.

This may produce unexpected results for classes that have multiple default parameters of different types. Consider:

With s4, we’ve attempted to construct a Something by providing only a double. This won’t compile, as the rules for how arguments match with default parameters won’t allow us to skip a non-rightmost parameter (in this case, the leftmost int parameter).

If we want to be able to construct a Something with only a double, we’ll need to add a second (non-default) constructor:

An implicitly generated default constructor

If your class has no constructors, C++ will automatically generate a public default constructor for you. This is sometimes called an implicit constructor (or implicitly generated constructor).

Consider the following class:

This class has no constructor. Therefore, the compiler will generate a constructor that allows us to create a Date object without arguments.

This particular implicit constructor allows us to create a Date object with no arguments, but doesn’t initialize any of the members unless we create the Date object with direct- or list-initialization (because all of the members are fundamental types, and those don’t get initialized upon creation). If Date had members that are class-types themselves, for example std::string, the constructors of those members would be called automatically.

To make sure the member variables get initialized, we can initialize them at their declaration.

Although you can’t see the implicitly generated constructor, you can prove it exists:

The above code compiles, because the date object will use the implicit constructor (which is public).

If your class has any other constructors, the implicitly generated constructor will not be provided. For example:

To allow construction of a Date without arguments, either add default arguments to the constructor, add an empty default constructor, or explicitly add a default constructor:

Using = default is almost the same as adding a default constructor with an empty body. The only difference is that = default allows us to safely initialize member variables even if they don’t have an initializer:

Using = default is longer than writing a constructor with an empty body, but expresses better what your intentions are (To create a default constructor), and it’s safer. = default also works for other special constructors, which we’ll talk about in the future.


If you have constructors in your class and need a default constructor that does nothing, use = default.

Classes containing classes

A class may contain other classes as member variables. By default, when the outer class is constructed, the member variables will have their default constructors called. This happens before the body of the constructor executes.

This can be demonstrated thusly:

This prints:


When variable b is constructed, the B() constructor is called. Before the body of the constructor executes, m_a is initialized, calling the class A default constructor. This prints “A”. Then control returns back to the B constructor, and the body of the B constructor executes.

This makes sense when you think about it, as the B() constructor may want to use variable m_a -- so m_a had better be initialized first!

The difference to the last example in the previous section is that m_a is a class-type. class-type members get initialized even if we don’t explicitly initialize them.

In the next lesson, we’ll talk about how to initialize these class member variables.

Constructor notes

Many new programmers are confused about whether constructors create the objects or not. They do not -- the compiler sets up the memory allocation for the object prior to the constructor call.

Constructors actually serve two purposes. First, constructors determine who is allowed to create an object. That is, an object of a class can only be created if a matching constructor can be found.

Second, constructors can be used to initialize objects. Whether the constructor actually does an initialization is up to the programmer. It’s syntactically valid to have a constructor that does no initialization at all (the constructor still serves the purpose of allowing the object to be created, as per the above).

However, much like it is a best practice to initialize all local variables, it’s also a best practice to initialize all member variables on creation of the object. This can be done either via a constructor, or via other means we’ll show in future lessons.

Best practice

Always initialize all member variables in your objects.

Finally, constructors are only intended to be used for initialization when the object is created. You should not try to call a constructor to re-initialize an existing object. While it may compile, the results will not be what you intended (instead, the compiler will create a temporary object and then discard it).

Quiz time

Question #1

Write a class named Ball. Ball should have two private member variables with default values: m_color (“black”) and m_radius (10.0). Ball should provide constructors to set only m_color, set only m_radius, set both, or set neither value. For this quiz question, do not use default parameters for your constructors. Also write a function to print out the color and radius of the ball.

The following sample program should compile:

and produce the result:

color: black, radius: 10
color: blue, radius: 10
color: black, radius: 20
color: blue, radius: 20

Show Solution

b) Update your answer to the previous question to use constructors with default parameters. Use as few constructors as possible.

Show Solution

Question #2

What happens if you don’t declare a default constructor?

Show Solution

11.6 -- Constructor member initializer lists
11.4 -- Access functions and encapsulation

493 comments to 11.5 — Constructors

  • Aditya

    Why does the constructor have to be public? We haven't called it right? Does being private mean that even the compiler can't access it?

    • Aditya

      So it dawned on me that we are calling the constructor when we define the object. Please correct me if i'm wrong.

    • Alex

      If a constructor is public, then it can be used by instantiated objects. If the constructor is private, then instantiated objects can not use it (but in C++11 it can still be called by other constructors).

      For example, making a default constructor private means that you can't instantiate objects like this:

  • Matt

    Hello Alex -

    Why do you use the following in the constructor for the Ball class:

    Is there a reason for using a reference variable for the string "color"? Thank you.

    • Alex

      Yes, without the reference, C++ would make a copy of the argument passed into parameter color every time the Ball constructor was called. Since color is a class, this is likely to be slow, and unnecessary.

      Passing in a const reference allows us to avoid making a copy of the argument passed into color and just use the argument itself.

  • Josh

    "If there are no other constructors in the class, the created default constructor will be public. Otherwise, it will be private (disallowing creation of the object via the default constructor)."

    As far as I known, if user provides non default constructor(s), the default constructor will not be created. Hence, it should not be private, perhaps, I misunderstand it. Could you please help clarify it, thanks a lot.

    • Alex

      You're correct, my mistake. However, the practical effect is the same: the class can't be instantiated without parameters. I've updated the lesson to be accurate in this regard.

  • Sophie

    Can you maybe explain why in quiz question 1 the variable color is passed by (const) reference in the constructor (i.e. const std::string &color)? Why is this preferred over passing the variable by value?

    • Alex

      Passing an argument by value would cause the compiler to copy the argument's value into the parameter. For fundamental types (int, bool, double, enums, and data-only structs) this is fine, because doing so is trivial and fast. For other types (especially classes, such as std::string), making a copy can be expensive. In these cases, it's better to pass by const reference, to avoid making a copy.

      In short, pass fundamental types by value (or reference, if you need the function to modify the argument), pass classes by const reference.

  • Anthony

    Hey, great tuts. They've helped a lot while I get through school. I just wanted to clarify something. Say I have the following constructor:

    and in my main I have this:

    Now, this sets the first name as Test. Say I only know the last name or the payrate. Do I need to make two different constructors only specifying payrate or lastName? Just want to make sure I'm not wasting time typing out all these constructors that aren't needed. Thanks in advance.

    • Alex

      Yes, if you only know last name or payrate, you'd need to make separate constructors for those. You'd also need to have some way to distinguish first name from last name -- since both are strings, the compiler probably wouldn't be able to infer which you'd intended.

      • Lyle

        I see you can provide variations of the constructors to handle different # of inputs, and I get that.
        Can/how do you do the case where you want to supply just the 3rd argument, ala something like constructorname(,,argument) ?

        Related  - do you have an example of creating a list/vector/array of many instantances of a class object (containing references to additional sub classes) - and how to safely write to file ( and later reconstruct from same) in a portable and unambiguous manner to file ?   If not, what is the correct terminology to search for examples of it ?

        Excellent and clear tutorials all the way through. Thank you so much.

        • Alex

          There's no way to write a function (constructor or otherwise) that allow you to provide default values for non-rightmost parameters.

          If you want a constructor where you only need to pass in the 3rd argument, then consider writing a constructor that takes one argument, which would be the third argument from the other constructor:

          constructorname(type arg3)

          This will work so long as that constructor has a unique signature.

          As for creating a list/vector/array of a class object:

          This only works if YourClass has a default constructor.

          If YourClass doesn't have a default constructor, you can construct these using an initialization list:

          std::vector also has a form to initialize every element with the same object:

          Writing stuff to files is tricky, and probably a good topic for an entire lesson or two. I don't have anything of that nature yet, but I'll add it to my to do list for consideration.

          • Lyle

            Thanks, it's a good topic - the whole file I/O space, maybe XML or other text format as well as binary - in and out. ?

            "many instantances " ...  that's "many instances" ...

  • Aleksandar

    I would just like to say thanks for creating this amazing web site. It helped me a lot while learning C++. My professors are really bad at explaining things and I can hardly understand anything that they are saying. They also give very few examples and there is just a lot of theory. Now, after studying by reading these tutorials, I really think I have a chance to pass this exam. Thank you once again. :D
    I wish you were teaching at my university. :D

  • Gopal

    Hi Alex,

    Can we define more then one Constructor (and Destructor) within a Class? Note: not by function overloading but all together different Constructors with different names.

  • Gopal

    A question not related to Constructor: Why uninitialized variable always contains garbage valve? Why is not just simply 0 or 0000 0000?

    • Alex

      C++ doesn't initialize variables by default because there's a performance cost to doing so. If you want an initialized variable, do it yourself. :)

      It's worth noting that many uninitialized variables will contain the value 0, when the memory allocated for the variable happens to be set to 0. In this case, the 0 is a garbage value. Running the program again may produce a different result.

  • Mr D

    Ok, so in your last example of the chapter, you create a class that has a default constructor value, but also accepts an argument to user-define the value of the constructor? And the user-defined one takes precedence? Hence:

    • Alex

      There is only one constructor here, and it is the default constructor. It just so happens that this default constructor takes an optional parameter that can be used to specify the month.

      In the first case, you're calling the default constructor and using the default value for parameter nMonth.
      In the second case, you're also calling the default constructor but with a supplied value for parameter nMonth.

  • vish

    oh yes constructor is a class memeber function got it.

  • vish

    Thanx Alex. Now i found constructor a very useful and powerful member of a class. i read this chapter twice and i got it. Sometimes constructor itself looks like function. i think i ll get use to with more practice.

  • vish

    i am not understanding here. i can initialize numerator and denominator in my main fuction why i use constructor?
    or the thing is that constructor used for default initialization but if i do not want a default initialization why would i use constructor?

    • Alex

      If numerator and denominator are private members of the class, how do you intend to initialize them from your main function? I suppose you could use public functions (e.g. setNumerator()) to do so, but this is clunky. I think you'll agree that:

      is easier than:

      The entire purpose of constructors is to initialize a newly created object. You can provide multiple flavors of constructors to handle different types of initialization: one for default initialization, one or more for initialization where the user provides input values, and others for other types of initializations (e.g. conversions from other types, etc...)

  • Alex, why we can't initialize a member variable when declaring it. Code::Blocks has no problem with this program:

    And the output is:

    I heard that we can't initialize member variables like this(but code::blocks does not throw any error). Is that true? If not, then why use constructors?

  • Shivam Tripathi

    hii alex...after a long tym m back ...:)

    m li'l bit confused about constructor's (ctor) actual wikipedia it's written that " ctor is a sub-routine invoked to 'create an object' "...but u mentioned (and also i hv heard from  a lot of person saying) that 'ctors' come in existence when 'object is created'...

    so what's actually ctor's come in existence when object is created....or 'object' come in existence when 'ctor' is called...

  • kekie

    Okay, so default constructors with optional parameters I get, but I don't really see the point of default constructors with no parameters. Why not just set the member vars where they're declared?

    So, to clarify, why do this;

    int m_var;
    m_var = 6;

    When you can do this;
    int m_var = 6;

    • Alex

      You couldn't do this before C++11.

      Now that you can, I agree that it's better to favor the non-static member initialization form than a default constructor with no parameters.

  • rmusty

    Hi, I tried making a program that utilizes constructors and takes the users name and birthday as an input and outputs his/her age. I am getting the following problem:
    (56): error C2228: left of '.calc' must have class/struct/union
    (57): error C2228: left of '.output' must have class/struct/union

    My code:

    #include "stdafx.h"

    using namespace std;

    class Person
    char c_strName[25];
    int c_month;
    int c_day;
    int c_year;
    int c_age;

    Person(char *strName = "No Name", int month = 1, int day = 1, int year = 1900)
    strncpy_s(c_strName, strName, 25);
    c_month = month;
    c_day = day;
    c_year = year;

    void calc()
    time_t now = time(0);
    tm *locTime = localtime(&now);

    int curMonth = 1 + (locTime -> tm_mon);
    int curDay = locTime -> tm_mday;
    int curYear = 1900 + (locTime -> tm_year);

    c_age = curYear - c_year;

    if(((curMonth - c_month) > 0) && ((curDay - c_day) > 0))
    c_age = c_age - 1;

    void output()
    cout << "Your age is: " << c_age << endl;


    int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
    Person cBob();
    cBob.calc(); // ERROR POINTS TO THIS LINE
    cBob.output(); // ERROR POINTS TO THIS LINE

    return 0;

    • McGlear

      In case somebody has a similar problem:

      When creating an instance of a class, you have to omit the parentheses! You are not calling a function but creating an instance of your Person class.

      int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
      Person cBob; // This should do the trick
      cBob.calc(); // No error anymore
      cBob.output(); // Compiles fine as well.

      return 0;

  • gantashalavenki

    can we call constructor manually like any other member functions?....after intializing varialbes using constructor can we call constructor once again to reinitialize?

  • SWEngineer

    Simple well explained tutorial.


  • andi

    Hi Alex,
    Just want to say ... it's really great tutorial. Thanx it helps me a lot. i like the way you make your explaination, it's simple and easy to understand.

  • Vineet

    Your tutorial is nice and gives a clear understanding of constructors.


  • Mark

    I haven't programmed for many years as OOP seemed too scary but it's all coming together really clearly now thanks to this this site. I'm starting to see the elegance of this language. Many thanks Alex for your clear and concise tutorial.

  • Ramakrishna

    hello Alex,
    This is the first time iam seeing this site actually iam
    from non computer background, eventhen iam able to understand easily..
    Really good job
    thanks Alexji...........

  • Paulius

    Hi Alex,
    I have the following class:

    and using this

    initializes posX to 10. Is there a way, i can initialize first constructor parameter to default value, and second one to something else?

    I want to do something like this: (ofc, this example doesn't compile)


    • codeez

      No, remember parameters replace from left to right. It wouldn't hurt to just call it with point(0, 10); though.

    • bruno

      If you always want to call

      Meaning that if just one parameter is given, x will be default and y will be the int.
      Then you could just reverse the order of you parameters

  • Vishal

    hello alex,
    When i compiled following program i got an error that-

    Ambiguity between Con::Con(int) & Con::Con(float)
    my query is that Why this is so? We can do same thing with functions(i did it in this program too) then why cant with Constructors???

    • baldo

      The error appears because the compiler treats the number 10.8 as double by default. That is why you get the ambiguity error. Replace 10.8 with 10.8f so the compiler knows that the number is a float number.

  • Maryam

    THANKU guys.... i was facing problem in parameterized constructor. thanks a lot again...

  • Do constructors must have same name as class or can have different name?


  • It's really help full for students like for me .
    I had recommended this to my fiends too.

  • Renu

    class Fraction
    int m_nNumerator =10;
    int m_nDenominator=20;

    Fraction() // default constructor .......

    I tried initialising m_nNumerator =10 and int m_nDenominator=20

    got this error " only static const can be initialised ...."

    Then I tried

    static const int m_nValue=22;
    int m_nNumerator ;
    int m_nDenominator;
    It worked.

    Could you please explain? Does that mean private member variable cannot be initialised when they are declared? If so ,is there any specific reason for that?


    • (Edit: This comment is now outdated due to a change in C++11 -- see next comment in this thread)

      In a class, you can't initialize values on the line they are declared like that. Non-static class values should be initialized in the constructor body or initialization list. Static class values should be initialized in the body of the class definition.

      I am not sure what the reasoning is for this design decision. I presume simply because the constructor is the function that is supposed to initialize your values. If you were allowed to do default values this way, then many variables would be initialized twice (once in the declaration, once in the constructor). This would be both inefficient and confusing.

      • Connor

        Hello Alex,
        when I initialize the class variables after declaring them the program will still compile without error.

        could this just be the way my compiler is set up (I'm using code::blocks) or am I not grasping the concept?

        • Alex

          This is one of my favorite features of C++11. Starting with C++11, it's now possible to assign struct and class members a default value using standard initialization syntax. This means you don't have to initialize these values in the constructors.

          If you have a value initialized both on the declaration line AND in the constructor, the constructor will take precedence. e.g:

          m_whatever will be initialized to 9.

  • Abhishek

    what's assert() ?

    • I talk about assert in section 7.12. In short, it's a way to test whether an expression is true, and if not, stop the program at that point.

      • J3ANP3T3R

        Hey Alex sorry to be a huge bother but im going back a few lesson pages because i'm having trouble with constructors. if i pass some parameters to a class i wanted to find out which section is going to take precedence ( the default values or the initialized values ). so i try to run a test on visual studio 2015 and something is wrong with my code and i couldn't quite figure it out.

        i got this on main()

        this will print some wacky numbers ... it was originally not INT but std::string but that would print empty for me so i tried to make them integers. got any idea ? :(

        • Alex

          The problem here is that your constructor parameters have the same name as the member variables. So when you do m_fname = 4, you're assigning the value of 4 to the parameter, not the member variable.

          The best way to fix this is to ensure your parameters have unique names (e.g. don't start them with m_, they're not member variables).

          • J3ANP3T3R

            Thanks alex that fixed it i changed it to :

            because to continue with testing. i am now playing around with the "default" parameters. the problem now is this prints some weird values -858993460 -858993460 -858993460 ...  is there something wrong with my using of data type INT ?

            • Alex

              No, but you're still not assigning values to m_fname, m_mname, and m_lname.

              Your constructor should be:

          • J3ANP3T3R

            im so stupid... got twisted with my own variable names. got it alex thanks again

          • J3ANP3T3R

            hey Alex can i ask how do you force an empty parameter ? just for testing. like if i have

            Person(int pfname=10, int pmname=11, int plname=12)

            i wanted to force int pmname=11 to fire and ill pass a value to pfname and plname except pmname.

            • Alex

              C++ doesn't provide any way to use the defaulted value for a middle parameter. If you want to use defaulted parameters, those parameters must be on the right.

              I'm sure C++ has a good reason for this, but I don't know what it is. :)

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