While relational (comparison) operators can be used to test whether a particular condition is true or false, they can only test one condition at a time. Often we need to know whether multiple conditions are true simultaneously. For example, to check whether we’ve won the lottery, we have to compare whether all of the multiple numbers we picked match the winning numbers. In a lottery with 6 numbers, this would involve 6 comparisons, *all* of which have to be true. In other cases, we need to know whether any one of multiple conditions is true. For example, we may decide to skip work today if we’re sick, or if we’re too tired, or if we won the lottery in our previous example. This would involve checking whether *any* of 3 comparisons is true.

Logical operators provide us with the capability to test multiple conditions.

C++ has 3 logical operators:

Operator | Symbol | Example Usage | Operation |
---|---|---|---|

Logical NOT | ! | !x | true if x is false, or false if x is true |

Logical AND | && | x && y | true if x and y are both true, false otherwise |

Logical OR | || | x || y | true if either (or both) x or y are true, false otherwise |

**Logical NOT**

You have already run across the logical NOT unary operator in lesson 4.9 -- Boolean values. We can summarize the effects of logical NOT like so:

Logical NOT (operator !) | |
---|---|

Operand | Result |

true | false |

false | true |

If *logical NOT’s* operand evaluates to true, *logical NOT* evaluates to false. If *logical NOT’s* operand evaluates to false, *logical NOT* evaluates to true. In other words, *logical NOT* flips a Boolean value from true to false, and vice-versa.

Logical NOT is often used in conditionals:

```
bool tooLarge { x > 100 }; // tooLarge is true if x > 100
if (!tooLarge)
// do something with x
else
// print an error
```

One thing to be wary of is that *logical NOT* has a very high level of precedence. New programmers often make the following mistake:

```
#include <iostream>
int main()
{
int x{ 5 };
int y{ 7 };
if (!x > y)
std::cout << x << " is not greater than " << y << '\n';
else
std::cout << x << " is greater than " << y << '\n';
return 0;
}
```

This program prints:

5 is greater than 7

But *x* is not greater than *y*, so how is this possible? The answer is that because the *logical NOT* operator has higher precedence than the *greater than* operator, the expression `! x > y`

actually evaluates as `(!x) > y`

. Since *x* is 5, !x evaluates to *0*, and `0 > y`

is false, so the *else* statement executes!

The correct way to write the above snippet is:

```
#include <iostream>
int main()
{
int x{ 5 };
int y{ 7 };
if (!(x > y))
std::cout << x << " is not greater than " << y << '\n';
else
std::cout << x << " is greater than " << y << '\n';
return 0;
}
```

This way, `x > y`

will be evaluated first, and then logical NOT will flip the Boolean result.

Best practice

If *logical NOT* is intended to operate on the result of other operators, the other operators and their operands need to be enclosed in parentheses.

Simple uses of *logical NOT*, such as `if (!value)`

do not need parentheses because precedence does not come into play.

Logical OR

The *logical OR* operator is used to test whether either of two conditions is true. If the left operand evaluates to true, or the right operand evaluates to true, or both are true, then the *logical OR* operator returns true. Otherwise it will return false.

Logical OR (operator ||) | ||
---|---|---|

Left operand | Right operand | Result |

false | false | false |

false | true | true |

true | false | true |

true | true | true |

For example, consider the following program:

```
#include <iostream>
int main()
{
std::cout << "Enter a number: ";
int value {};
std::cin >> value;
if (value == 0 || value == 1)
std::cout << "You picked 0 or 1\n";
else
std::cout << "You did not pick 0 or 1\n";
return 0;
}
```

In this case, we use the logical OR operator to test whether either the left condition (value == 0) or the right condition (value == 1) is true. If either (or both) are true, the *logical OR* operator evaluates to true, which means the *if statement* executes. If neither are true, the *logical OR* operator evaluates to false, which means the *else statement* executes.

Warning

New programmers sometimes try this:

` if (value == 0 || 1) // incorrect: if value is 0, or if 1`

When `1`

is evaluated, it will implicitly convert to `bool`

`true`

. Thus this conditional will always evaluate to `true`

.

If you want to compare a variable against multiple values, you need to compare the variable multiple times:

` if (value == 0 || value == 1) // correct: if value is 0, or if value is 1`

You can string together many *logical OR* statements:

```
if (value == 0 || value == 1 || value == 2 || value == 3)
std::cout << "You picked 0, 1, 2, or 3\n";
```

New programmers sometimes confuse the *logical OR* operator (||) with the *bitwise OR* operator (|) (covered in lesson O.2 -- Bitwise operators). Even though they both have *OR* in the name, they perform different functions. Mixing them up will probably lead to incorrect results.

Logical AND

The *logical AND* operator is used to test whether both operands are true. If both operands are true, *logical AND* returns true. Otherwise, it returns false.

Logical AND (operator &&) | ||
---|---|---|

Left operand | Right operand | Result |

false | false | false |

false | true | false |

true | false | false |

true | true | true |

For example, we might want to know if the value of variable *x* is between *10* and *20*. This is actually two conditions: we need to know if *x* is greater than *10*, and also whether *x* is less than *20*.

```
#include <iostream>
int main()
{
std::cout << "Enter a number: ";
int value {};
std::cin >> value;
if (value > 10 && value < 20)
std::cout << "Your value is between 10 and 20\n";
else
std::cout << "Your value is not between 10 and 20\n";
return 0;
}
```

In this case, we use the *logical AND* operator to test whether the left condition (value > 10) AND the right condition (value < 20) are both true. If both are true, the *logical AND* operator evaluates to true, and the *if statement* executes. If neither are true, or only one is true, the *logical AND* operator evaluates to false, and the *else statement* executes.

As with *logical OR*, you can string together many *logical AND* statements:

```
if (value > 10 && value < 20 && value != 16)
// do something
else
// do something else
```

If all of these conditions are true, the *if statement* will execute. If any of these conditions are false, the *else statement* will execute.

As with logical and bitwise OR, new programmers sometimes confuse the *logical AND* operator (&&) with the *bitwise AND* operator (&).

Short circuit evaluation

In order for *logical AND* to return true, both operands must evaluate to true. If the left operand evaluates to false, *logical AND* knows it must return false regardless of whether the right operand evaluates to true or false. In this case, the *logical AND* operator will go ahead and return false immediately without even evaluating the right operand! This is known as **short circuit evaluation**, and it is done primarily for optimization purposes.

Similarly, if the left operand for *logical OR* is true, then the entire OR condition has to evaluate to true, and the right operand won’t be evaluated.

Short circuit evaluation presents another opportunity to show why operators that cause side effects should not be used in compound expressions. Consider the following snippet:

```
if (x == 1 && ++y == 2)
// do something
```

if *x* does not equal *1*, the whole condition must be false, so ++y never gets evaluated! Thus, *y* will only be incremented if *x* evaluates to 1, which is probably not what the programmer intended!

Warning

Short circuit evaluation may cause *Logical OR* and *Logical AND* to not evaluate the right operand. Avoid using expressions with side effects in conjunction with these operators.

Key insight

The Logical OR and logical AND operators are an exception to the rule that the operands may evaluate in any order, as the standard explicitly states that the left operand must evaluate first.

For advanced readers

Only the built-in versions of these operators perform short-circuit evaluation. If you overload these operators to make them work with your own types, those overloaded operators will not perform short-circuit evaluation.

Mixing ANDs and ORs

Mixing *logical AND* and *logical OR* operators in the same expression often can not be avoided, but it is an area full of potential dangers.

Because *logical AND* and *logical OR* seem like a pair, many programmers assume they have the same precedence (just like addition/subtraction and multiplication/division). However, *logical AND* has higher precedence than *logical OR*, thus *logical AND* operators will be evaluated ahead of *logical OR* operators (unless they have been parenthesized).

New programmers will often write expressions such as `value1 || value2 && value3`

. Because *logical AND* has higher precedence, this evaluates as `value1 || (value2 && value3)`

, not `(value1 || value2) && value3`

. Hopefully that’s what the programmer wanted! If the programmer was assuming left to right association (as happens with addition/subtraction, or multiplication/division), the programmer will get a result he or she was not expecting!

When mixing *logical AND* and *logical OR* in the same expression, it is a good idea to explicitly parenthesize each operator and its operands. This helps prevent precedence mistakes, makes your code easier to read, and clearly defines how you intended the expression to evaluate. For example, rather than writing `value1 && value2 || value3 && value4`

, it is better to write `(value1 && value2) || (value3 && value4)`

.

Best practice

When mixing *logical AND* and *logical OR* in a single expression, explicitly parenthesize each operation to ensure they evaluate how you intend.

De Morgan’s laws

Many programmers also make the mistake of thinking that `!(x && y)`

is the same thing as `!x && !y`

. Unfortunately, you can not “distribute” the *logical NOT* in that manner.

De Morgan’s laws tell us how the *logical NOT* should be distributed in these cases:

`!(x && y)`

is equivalent to `!x || !y`

`!(x || y)`

is equivalent to `!x && !y`

In other words, when you distribute the *logical NOT*, you also need to flip *logical AND* to *logical OR*, and vice-versa!

This can sometimes be useful when trying to make complex expressions easier to read.

For advanced readers

We can show that the first part of De Morgan’s Laws is correct by proving that `!(x && y)`

equals `!x || !y`

for every possible value of `x`

and `y`

. To do so, we’ll use a mathematical concept called a truth table:

x | y | !x | !y | !(x && y) | !x || !y |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

false | false | true | true | true | true |

false | true | true | false | true | true |

true | false | false | true | true | true |

true | true | false | false | false | false |

In this table, the first and second columns represent our `x`

and `y`

variables. Each row in the table shows one permutation of possible values for `x`

and `y`

. Because `x`

and `y`

are Boolean values, we only need 4 rows to cover every combination of possible values that `x`

and `y`

can hold.

The rest of the columns in the table represent expressions that we want to evaluate based on the initial values of `x`

and `y`

. The third and fourth columns calculate the values of `!x`

and `!y`

respectively. The fifth column calculates the value of `!(x && y)`

. Finally, the sixth column calculates the value of `!x || !y`

.

You’ll notice for each row, the value in the fifth column matches the value in the sixth column. This means for every possible value of `x`

and `y`

, the value of `!(x && y)`

equals `!x || !y`

, which is what we were trying to prove!

We can do the same for the second part of De Morgan’s Laws:

x | y | !x | !y | !(x || y) | !x && !y |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

false | false | true | true | true | true |

false | true | true | false | false | false |

true | false | false | true | false | false |

true | true | false | false | false | false |

Similarly, for every possible value of `x`

and `y`

, we can see that the value of `!(x || y)`

equals the value of `!x && !y`

. Thus, they are equivalent.

Where’s the logical exclusive or (XOR) operator?

*Logical XOR* is a logical operator provided in some languages that is used to test whether an odd number of conditions is true:

Logical XOR | ||
---|---|---|

Left operand | Right operand | Result |

false | false | false |

false | true | true |

true | false | true |

true | true | false |

C++ doesn’t provide an explicit *logical XOR* operator (`operator^`

is a bitwise XOR, not a logical XOR). Unlike *logical OR* or *logical AND*, *logical XOR* cannot be short circuit evaluated. Because of this, making a *logical XOR* operator out of *logical OR* and *logical AND* operators is challenging.

However, `operator!=`

produces the same result as a logical XOR when given `bool`

operands:

Left operand | Right operand | logical XOR | operator!= |
---|---|---|---|

false | false | false | false |

false | true | true | true |

true | false | true | true |

true | true | false | false |

Therefore, a logical XOR can be implemented as follows:

`if (a != b) ... // a XOR b, assuming a and b are bool`

This can be extended to multiple operands as follows:

`if (a != b != c) ... // a XOR b XOR c, assuming a, b, and c are bool`

If the operands are not of type `bool`

, using `operator!=`

to implement a logical XOR will not work as expected.

For advanced readers

If you need a form of *logical XOR* that works with non-Boolean operands, you can static_cast your operands to bool:

`if (static_cast<bool>(a) != static_cast<bool>(b) != static_cast<bool>(c)) ... // a XOR b XOR c, for any type that can be converted to bool`

However, this is a bit verbose. The following trick (which makes use of the fact that `operator!`

implicitly converts its operand to `bool`

) also works and is a bit more concise:

`if (!!a != !!b != !!c) // a XOR b XOR c, for any type that can be converted to bool`

The double `!!`

is necessary in cases where we have an odd number of operands.

Neither of these are very intuitive, so document them well if you use them.

Alternative operator representations

Many operators in C++ (such as operator ||) have names that are just symbols. Historically, not all keyboards and language standards have supported all of the symbols needed to type these operators. As such, C++ supports an alternative set of keywords for the operators that use words instead of symbols. For example, instead of `||`

, you can use the keyword `or`

.

The full list can be found here. Of particular note are the following three:

Operator name | Keyword alternate name |
---|---|

&& | and |

|| | or |

! | not |

This means the following are identical:

```
std::cout << !a && (b || c);
std::cout << not a and (b or c);
```

While these alternative names might seem easier to understand right now, most experienced C++ developers prefer using the symbolic names over the keyword names. As such, we recommend learning and using the symbolic names, as this is what you will commonly find in existing code.

Quiz time

Question #1

Evaluate the following expressions.

Note: in the following answers, we “explain our work” by showing you the steps taken to get to the final answer. The steps are separated by a *=>* symbol. Expressions that were ignored due to the short circuit rules are placed in square brackets. For example

(1 < 2 || 3 != 3) =>

(true || [3 != 3]) =>

(true) =>

true

means we evaluated (1 < 2 || 3 != 3) to arrive at (true || [3 != 3]) and evaluated that to arrive at “true”. The 3 != 3 was never executed due to short circuiting.

a) (true && true) || false

b) (false && true) || true

c) (false && true) || false || true

d) (5 > 6 || 4 > 3) && (7 > 8)

e) !(7 > 6 || 3 > 4)

Question #2

In lesson 6.3 -- Remainder and Exponentiation, we wrote a function to determine whether a number is even that looked like this:

```
#include <iostream>
bool isEven(int x)
{
// if x % 2 == 0, 2 divides evenly into our number, which means it must be an even number
return (x % 2) == 0;
}
int main()
{
std::cout << "Enter an integer: ";
int x{};
std::cin >> x;
if (isEven(x))
std::cout << x << " is even\n";
else
std::cout << x << " is odd\n";
return 0;
}
```

Rewrite this function using `operator!`

instead of `operator==`

.