10.22 — An introduction to std::array

In previous lessons, we’ve talked at length about fixed and dynamic arrays. Although both are built right into the C++ language, they both have downsides: Fixed arrays decay into pointers, losing the array length information when they do, and dynamic arrays have messy deallocation issues and are challenging to resize without error.

To address these issues, the C++ standard library includes functionality that makes array management easier, std::array and std::vector. We’ll examine std::array in this lesson, and std::vector in the next.

An introduction to std::array

std::array provides fixed array functionality that won’t decay when passed into a function. std::array is defined in the <array> header, inside the std namespace.

Declaring a std::array variable is easy:

Just like the native implementation of fixed arrays, the length of a std::array must be known at compile time.

std::array can be initialized using initializer lists or list initialization:

Unlike built-in fixed arrays, with std::array you can not omit the array length when providing an initializer:

However, since C++17, it is allowed to omit the type and size. They can only be omitted together, but not one or the other, and only if the array is explicitly initialized.

We favor this syntax rather than typing out the type and size at the declaration. If your compiler is not C++17 capable, you need to use the explicit syntax instead.

Since C++20, it is possible to specify the element type but omit the array length. This makes creation of std::array a little more like creation of C-style arrays. To create an array with a specific type and deduced size, we use the std::to_array function:

Unfortunately, std::to_array is more expensive than creating a std::array directly, because it actually copies all elements from a C-style array to a std::array. For this reason, std::to_array should be avoided when the array is created many times (e.g. in a loop).

You can also assign values to the array using an initializer list

Accessing std::array values using the subscript operator works just like you would expect:

Just like built-in fixed arrays, the subscript operator does not do any bounds-checking. If an invalid index is provided, bad things will probably happen.

std::array supports a second form of array element access (the at() function) that does bounds checking:

In the above example, the call to checks to ensure the index 1 is valid, and because it is, it returns a reference to array element 1. We then assign the value of 6 to this. However, the call to fails because array element 9 is out of bounds for the array. Instead of returning a reference, the at() function throws an error that terminates the program (note: It’s actually throwing an exception of type std::out_of_range -- we cover exceptions in chapter 14). Because it does bounds checking, at() is slower (but safer) than operator[].

std::array will clean up after itself when it goes out of scope, so there’s no need to do any kind of manual cleanup.

Size and sorting

The size() function can be used to retrieve the length of the std::array:

This prints:

length: 5

Because std::array doesn’t decay to a pointer when passed to a function, the size() function will work even if you call it from within a function:

This also prints:

length: 5

Note that the standard library uses the term “size” to mean the array length — do not get this confused with the results of sizeof() on a native fixed array, which returns the actual size of the array in memory (the size of an element multiplied by the array length). Yes, this nomenclature is inconsistent.

Also note that we passed std::array by (const) reference. This is to prevent the compiler from making a copy of the std::array when the std::array was passed to the function (for performance reasons).

Best practice

Always pass std::array by reference or const reference

Because the length is always known, range-based for-loops work with std::array:

You can sort std::array using std::sort, which lives in the <algorithm> header:

This prints:

1 3 5 7 9

The sorting function uses iterators, which is a concept we haven’t covered yet, so for now you can treat the parameters to std::sort() as a bit of magic. We’ll explain them later.

Passing std::array of different lengths to a function

With a std::array, the element type and array length are part of the type information. Therefore, when we use a std::array as a function parameter, we have to specify the element type and array length:

The downside is that this limits our function to only handling arrays of this specific type and length. But what if we want to have our function handle arrays of different element types or lengths? We’d have to create a copy of the function for each different element type and/or array length we want to use. That’s a lot of duplication.

Fortunately, we can have C++ do this for us, using templates. We can create a template function that parameterizes part or all of the type information, and then C++ will use that template to create “real” functions (with actual types) as needed.

Related content

We cover function templates in lesson 8.13 -- Function templates.

Manually indexing std::array via size_type

Pop quiz: What’s wrong with the following code?

The answer is that there’s a likely signed/unsigned mismatch in this code! Due to a curious decision, the size() function and array index parameter to operator[] use a type called size_type, which is defined by the C++ standard as an unsigned integral type. Our loop counter/index (variable i) is a signed int. Therefore both the comparison i < myArray.size() and the array index myArray[i] have type mismatches.

Interestingly enough, size_type isn't a global type (like int or std::size_t). Rather, it's defined inside the definition of std::array (C++ allows nested types). This means when we want to use size_type, we have to prefix it with the full array type (think of std::array acting as a namespace in this regard). In our above example, the fully-prefixed type of "size_type" is std::array<int, 5>::size_type!

Therefore, the correct way to write the above code is as follows:

That's not very readable. Fortunately, std::array::size_type is just an alias for std::size_t, so we can use that instead.

A better solution is to avoid manual indexing of std::array in the first place. Instead, use range-based for-loops (or iterators) if possible.

Keep in mind that unsigned integers wrap around when you reach their limits. A common mistake is to decrement an index that is 0 already, causing a wrap-around to the maximum value. You saw this in the lesson about for-loops, but let's repeat.

This is an infinite loop, producing undefined behavior once i wraps around. There are two issues here. If `myArray` is empty, ie. size() returns 0 (which is possible with std::array), myArray.size() - 1 wraps around. The other issue occurs no matter how many elements there are. i >= 0 is always true, because unsigned integers cannot be less than 0.

A working reverse for-loop for unsigned integers takes an odd shape:

Suddenly we decrement the index in the condition, and we use the postfix -- operator. The condition runs before every iteration, including the first. In the first iteration, i is myArray.size() - 1, because i was decremented in the condition. When i is 0 and about to wrap around, the condition is no longer true and the loop stops. i actually wraps around when we do i-- for the last time, but it's not used afterwards.

Array of struct

Of course std::array isn't limited to numbers as elements. Every type that can be used in a regular array can be used in a std::array.


House number 13 has 120 rooms
House number 14 has 30 rooms
House number 15 has 120 rooms

However, things get a little weird when we try to initialize the array.

Although we can initialize std::array like this if its elements are simple types, like int or std::string, it doesn't work with types that need multiple values to be created. Let's have a look at why this is the case.

std::array is an aggregate type, just like House. There is no special function for the creation of a std::array. Rather, its internal array gets initialized like any other member variable of a struct. To make this easier to understand, we'll implement a simple array type ourselves.

As of now, we can't do this without having to access the value member. You'll learn how to get around that later. This doesn't affect the issue we're observing.

As expected, this works. So does std::array if we use it with int elements. When we instantiate a struct, we can initialize all of its members. If we try to create an Array of Houses, we get an error.

When we use braces inside of the initialization, the compiler will try to initialize one member of the struct for each pair of braces. Rather than initializing the Array like this:

The compiler tries to initialize the Array like this:

The first pair of inner braces initializes value, because value is the first member of Array. Without the other two pairs of braces, there would be one house with number 13, 4 stories, and 30 rooms per story.

A reminder

Braces can be omitted during aggregate initialization:

To initialize all houses, we need to do so in the first pair of braces.

This works, but it's very confusing. So confusing that your compiler might even warn you about it. If we add braces around each element of the array, the initialization is a lot easier to read.

This is why you'll see an extra pair of braces in initializations of std::array.


std::array is a great replacement for built-in fixed arrays. It's efficient, in that it doesn’t use any more memory than built-in fixed arrays. The only real downside of a std::array over a built-in fixed array is a slightly more awkward syntax, that you have to explicitly specify the array length (the compiler won’t calculate it for you from the initializer, unless you also omit the type, which isn't always possible), and the signed/unsigned issues with size and indexing. But those are comparatively minor quibbles — we recommend using std::array over built-in fixed arrays for any non-trivial array use.

10.23 -- An introduction to std::vector
10.21 -- Pointers to pointers and dynamic multidimensional arrays

302 comments to 10.22 — An introduction to std::array

  • Aasif Ali

    you said what wrong with this code, but it compiles fine and produces the expected result also......
    #include <iostream>
    #include <array>

    int main()
        std::array myArray { 7, 3, 1, 9, 5 };

        // Iterate through the array and print the value of the elements
        for (int i{ 0 }; i < myArray.size(); ++i)
            std::cout << myArray[i] << ' ';

        std::cout << '\n';

        return 0;

  • Urga

    There's a typo:

    Also, prefer the newer typename keyword:

  • DreiK

    templates are covered on lesson "8.13" contrary to what this lesson says

  • ArmandoIG

    Hello, I've got a question about passing an std::array to a function, it says always use "const" so it doesn't make a copy, but the "&" after the type doesn't do that exactly anyway?

    • Alex

      The & (reference) is so that it doesn't make a copy.
      The const qualifier is so that we can pass in both l-values (e.g. variables) and r-values (e.g. literals).

      • ArmandoIG

        I fail to understand that, you mean const can pass l-values and r-values withing the array or does it mean that you pass the array l-value and its literals?
        Also can we still modify the array if we pass it as const or is for read only?

        • Alex

          Non-const references can only accept l-value arguments. Const references can accept l-value and r-value arguments, which makes them more flexible.

          > Also can we still modify the array if we pass it as const or is for read only?

          Read only. That's the meaning of const.

  • Sonny Bui

    Hi nascardriver,
    I copied verbatim your codes below to and got compiler's errors. Could you please tell me why? I was using C++17. Thank you very much!

    #include <array>
    #include <iostream>

    // printArray is a template function
    template <class T, int size> // parameterize the element type and size
    void printArray(const std::array<T, size>& myArray)
        for (auto element : myArray)
            std::cout << element << ' ';
        std::cout << '\n';

    int main()
        std::array myArray5{ 9.0, 7.2, 5.4, 3.6, 1.8 };

        std::array myArray7{ 9.0, 7.2, 5.4, 3.6, 1.8, 1.2, 0.7 };

        return 0;

    main.cpp: In function ‘int main()’:
    main.cpp:16:24: error: no matching function for call to ‘printArray(std::array&)’
    main.cpp:6:6: note: candidate: template void printArray(const std::array&)
    void printArray(const std::array<T, size>& myArray)
    main.cpp:6:6: note:   template argument deduction/substitution failed:
    main.cpp:16:24: note:   mismatched types ‘int’ and ‘long unsigned int’

  • callOfBoothulhu


    Using Code::Blocks 20.03 with MinGW on Win 10. Compiler flags: -std=gnu++2a

    When trying to use std::to_array, compiler states that std::to_array is not part of std. <array> is #included. Any suggestions?

    Thank you very much for this fantastic website.

    • callOfBoothulhu


      The issue seems to be with Code::Blocks. The 20.03 release has a flaw in the compiler options and compatibility with C++20/a. There is a patch, but it's only available in the latest nightly builds. Otherwise, Code::Blocks currently has limited/inconsistent support for C++20/a, even with an updated compiler (using MinGW).

      Now using the latest nightly build with associated wxWidget and Mingw64 binaries, and TDM-GCC for the toolchain management. The nightly build can be found on the Code::Blocks website forums, and the instructions for using TDM-GCC can be found on the Code::Blocks wiki. My lessons are finally compiling again, yay.

      • callOfBoothulhu


        Nevermind, I still can't use std::to_array. I can use init statements in my ranged based for loops again though.

  • James C

    I think you should show how to make a multidimensional std::array, especially since multi-dim arrays were in the previous lesson.

  • James C

    Do you ever plan on restructuring this site a bit? General consensus in the C++ community is that things like std::vector should be taught far before native arrays, and references taught before pointers etc.. There's this talk that goes further into this. I agree with it. I'm enjoying this site, but I feel like it's partly because I have experience with other languages. I'd imagine the structure is a bit strange for a beginner. std::vector is quite easy and enjoyable to use, so some small lessons near the start introducing these types of things would be useful, I feel. And if you do that, consistently including those things in the examples of future lessons, too, so beginners will get used to using them, instead of just covering them then forgetting about them until later. This is probably quite a big undertaking, though. I definitely don't think any lessons should be removed, because all of this stuff is useful to understand, but it seems like people think the simpler-to-use things should be taught first.

    • Alex

      This is spot on! And I'm currently in the process of restructuring lessons to do exactly this. It is a huge undertaking, but you'll see the site updated over the next few months to reflect a structure analogous to what you're suggesting.

  • James C

    Please could you mention that you can template the size of the array when passed to a function? Right now, it looks completely useless, since you have to define the size in the function anyway. Just a little explanation, saying that it will be useful when we get to templates, would be nice, and would clear it up for everyone.

  • James C

    Best pratice labelled as rule. I recommend doing a mass search of the website (when you have the time) and checking each "Rule" to see if it actually is one.

  • James C

    I was testing a std::array<std::array<int, x>, y> for a wolfenstein style raycaster, and it makes a noticeable difference in speed, if you aren't using some sort of deltaTime to make the movement speed framerate independent. The native int[][] is a lot faster. When I go into release mode, the difference is much less noticeable, though. May want to mention this in the lesson. I may be doing something wrong, though, so I'm not sure.

    • Alex

      You're probably doing something wrong: std::array is a zero-overhead class, and shouldn't incur any performance penalty over built-in arrays. Most likely you're making copies of the std::array somewhere (e.g passing or returning by value instead of by pointer/reference).

      • James C

        I just came across this comment about vectors on stackoverflow:

        "Some version of vector when you are in debug mode add extra instructions to check that you don't access beyond the end of array and stuff like that. To get real timings you must build in release mode and turn the optimizations on."

        so it's possible that visual studio is doing some extra checking in the debug configuration, and that's why there's no difference in release mode.

        • Alex

          Yeah, it's definitely possible that in debug mode the compiler's implementation of the standard library is doing extra checks (e.g. asserts) that are compiled out in release mode.

          It's also possible that std::array, which is designed to be a "zero-overhead" class, isn't actually zero-overhead on your compiler.

          • James C

            I found this article:, it seems like they're speeding up runtime checks, so that should help.

  • Szymon :)

    1. Is there a way for a function to take a reference to std::array of ANY size?

    2. Could you also include how to deal with a multi dimensional std::array? I think it might be useful to some.

       What does .size() return (rows, columns, or rows * columns)?

       Example of using a 2D std::array - printing it (is there a way to do this by using only for each loops?):

    • Alex

      1) Not natively, but there's an easy workaround using templates. Make your function a template function and parameterize the array length. C++ will instantiate a new version of the template for each different array length. I believe this specific use case is covered with an example somewhere in the chapter on templates.

      2) If you have a std::array of std::arrays, then .size() will return the length of the outer array.

      You can use a range-based for on the outer std::array:

      • Szymon :)

        Hey, thank you for the solution to the second problem! But I don't really know what templates are, because I've just done 9.22 and I'm still going through this course. I don't think it's too important to me anyways right now, altough it's good to know! Again, thanks!

  • Tarun Mali

    It is stated that There is a signed/unsigned mismatch. The size() function and array index parameter to operator[] use a type called size_type. Our loop counter/index (variable i) is a signed int. Therefore both the comparison i < myArray.size() and the array index myArray[i] have type mismatches.

    I understand the statement, but what is the consequence of this mismatch? My IDE (VS2019) neither gives a error nor a warning. Are there any performance benefits from using std::size_t in place of int in this code?

    • nascardriver

      > My IDE (VS2019) neither gives a error nor a warning
      It's misconfigured or you're looking in the wrong place. msvc v19.28(VS16.9) with /Wall reports

      The problem with comparison and conversion is

      -1 gets converted to unsigned, which is a huge number. A huge number is greater than 1.
      According to this comparison, -1 is greater than 1.

      If a function (eg. `operator[]`) uses unsigned, it usually has a reason to do so.
      In this case, it doesn't make sense to index an array with a negative index. To support negative indexes, `std::array` would have to halve its capacity (Giving up the higher end of its index type).

  • Andreas Krug

    Small suggestion:
    For this reason, std::to_array should be avoided when the array is created many times, e.g. in a loop.
    instead of
    For this reason, std::to_array should be avoided when the array is created many times, eg. in a loop.

  • J34NP3T3R

    Because std::array doesn’t decay to a pointer when passed to a function, the size() function will work even if you call it from within a function:

    #include <array>
    #include <iostream>

    void printLength(const std::array<double, 5> &myArray)
        std::cout << "length: " << myArray.size() << '\n';

    int main()
        std::array myArray { 9.0, 7.2, 5.4, 3.6, 1.8 };


        return 0;

    but this example is passing the array as reference with &.

    if i pass the std::array as raw array parameter will size() still work ?

    EDIT : disregard this. i tried it and removed the & and size() still worked.

  • J34NP3T3R

    wait, std::array is a dynamic variable ?

  • Chirag

    Hey can you please help me with this code. It is not printing the sorted array.

  • kiwikiz

    What's the difference between these 2? Meaning and usage wise.I checked cppreference, it says the ={} is copy-list-initialization. Thank you for your time!

  • Samuel

    If I do this:

    auto would become of type std::size_t?
    If so, are there any disadvantages?

    • nascardriver

      `iii` is type `std::size_t`.
      You're calling a potentially expensive function when you don't need its return value.

      If you want to get the type of something, you can use `decltype`

      But since `std::array::size_type` is an alias for `std::size_t`, you can just use `std::size_t`.

  • yeokaiwei


    Could you add in a Syntax Template at the beginning?

    std::array<T,N> arrayname{};   , where T is the Type, N is the size

    This will help in understanding.

  • TonyCheeze

    I'm just a bit confused with why we have a problem with the code you provided in the first example of "Manually indexing std::array via size_type"

    I somewhat understood your explanation below it, but I don't really see how comparing unsigned vs signed types is an issue. I ran the above code and didn't get any errors or warnings. I guess I don't exactly understand how a signed/ unsigned mismatch is "bad" and I don't remember if it was ever explained in the other sections. Does it lead to undefined behavior?

    • nascardriver

      This prints
      i >= ui
      Probably not what the programmer expected.

      When a signed integer is compared to an unsigned integer, the signed integer gets converted to an unsigned integer (ie. it becomes potentially huge if it had a negative value).
      gcc and clang warn for the above code with -Wsign-conversion
      msvc warns for the above code with C4018

  • Rishi

    I know my code is wrong. But explain why it doesn't compile. I can't understand the compiler's explanation of the error occurred

  • Yousuf

    It took a while for me to understand the printing the array element in reverse order where we used postfix decrement. From lesson 5.4 I understand, in postfix operation, that first a copy of variable's r-value is made, then increment or decrement happens, this increment or decrement is not reflected on postfix operation statement, but they are reflected the subsequent operation.

    So the first iteration of the above code on line 6, the value of i is 5; On statement `i-- > 0;` : i decremented by 1, but this decrementation is not reflected on this line that is why value of i is still 5 , and 5 is being compared with 0, this comparison is true hence operation enters into loop body, as the statements inside loop body is subsequent operation after decrement so here i's value is 4 so the first element of the array is printed. When i's value is 1, it gets decremented but 1 > 0 so inside of loop body i = 0 is used, and the last element of the array is printed. When i = 0, it gets decremented, here i is wraps around as size(array) returns unsigned integer, but 0 > 0 is false so the loop terminates.

    • Yousuf

      I wanted to avoid unsigned integer(as it is potentially dangerous), postfix operation(as it involves copying), and wrapping around(potential infinite loop). So I coded like this to print the array's elements in reverse order:

      but compiler complains when using the highest level of warning on line 19 as compiler expects the unsigned integer for indexing the `std::array`.

      Here is the warning message:

      So I changed the line 19 like this:

      Now compiler is happy, still conversion from one type to another is computationally expensive.

      • nascardriver

        Both `--i` and `i--` decrement `i`. The only different is their return value. `--i` returns the new value of `i`, whereas `i--` returns the old value of `i`.

        The index type of `std::array` is `std::size_t`, not `uint`. The conversion is free as long as both types have the same size and binary representation, which is the case for `long unsigned int` and `long int` if the value is non-negative.

  • ric

    oh my.. the intro says that std::array exists because built-in fixed arrays are too confusing to use.. but it turns out std::array is even worse!.. you mentioned that with std::array you can use size() inside a function, but what's the use of it if you need to specify the size of the array in the function declaration? let's hope std::vector in the next lesson saves the day! xD

  • Galih

    Since this doesn't work

    How about something like this

    This seems work, but is it acceptable in that is it hard to read? Or it breaks down in some situation?

    • nascardriver

      The only things I don't like about it is that you're using `i`'s value _after_ it has wrapped around, and then have to to duplicate `myArray.size()`. Even then, your code shouldn't fail, because the maximum value `i` could have is always greater-than or equal-to `myArray.size()`, so the loop will terminate.

  • Martin

    Typo: "If we add braces around each element of the array, the initialization is a lot easy to read." easy -> easier

  • Martin

    I'd suggest to add "since C++17" and "prior to C++17" comments to

    in order to make the point of these examples clearer.

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