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The C++ Tutorial

LearnCpp.com is a free website devoted to teaching you how to program in C++. Whether you’ve had any prior programming experience or not, the tutorials on this site will walk you through all the steps to write, compile, and debug your C++ programs, all with plenty of examples.

Becoming an expert won’t happen overnight, but with a little patience, you’ll get there. And LearnCpp.com will show you the way.


Chapter 0 Introduction / Getting Started
0.1
Updated
Introduction to these tutorials
0.2
Updated May 20
Introduction to programming languages
0.3
Updated May 21
Introduction to C/C++
0.4
Updated
Introduction to development
0.5
Updated
Installing an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
0.6
Updated
Compiling your first program
0.6a
New
Build configurations
0.7
Updated
A few common C++ problems
 
Chapter 1 C++ Basics
1.1
Updated
Structure of a program
1.2
Updated
Comments
1.3
Updated
A first look at variables
1.3a
Updated May 29
A first look at cout, cin, endl, the std namespace, and using statements
1.4
Updated
A first look at functions
1.4a
Updated
A first look at function parameters
1.4b
New
A first look at local scope
1.4c
Moved
Keywords and naming identifiers
1.5
Updated
A first look at operators
1.6
Updated
Whitespace and basic formatting
1.7
Updated
Forward declarations
1.8
Updated
Programs with multiple files
1.9
Updated
Header files
1.10
Updated
A first look at the preprocessor and header guards
1.10a
Updated
How to design your first programs
1.11
Moved
Debugging your program (stepping and breakpoints)
1.11a
Moved
Debugging your program (watching variables and the call stack)
1.12
Updated
Chapter 1 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 2 Variables and Fundamental Data Types
2.1
Updated
Basic addressing and variable definition
2.2
New
Void
2.3
Updated
Variable sizes and the sizeof operator
2.4
Updated
Integers
2.4a
Moved
Fixed-width integers
2.5
Updated Jun 25
Floating point numbers
2.6
Updated
Boolean values
2.7
Updated
Chars
2.8
Updated May 20
Literals
2.9
Updated
Symbolic constants and the const keyword
2.10
Updated
Chapter 2 comprehensive quiz
Chapter 3 Operators
3.1
Updated
Operator precedence and associativity
3.2
Updated
Arithmetic operators
3.3
Updated
Increment/decrement operators, and side effects
3.4
Updated
Sizeof, comma, and conditional operators
3.5
Updated
Relational operators (comparisons)
3.6
Updated
Logical operators
3.7
Updated
Converting between binary and decimal
3.8
Updated Jun 24
Bitwise operators
3.x
Updated
Chapter 3 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 4 Variable Scope and More Types
4.1
Updated
Blocks (compound statements)
4.1a
Updated
Local variables, scope, and duration
4.2
Updated
Global variables and linkage
4.2a
Updated
Why global variables are evil
4.3
Updated
Static duration variables
4.3a
Moved
Namespaces
4.4
Updated
Implicit type conversion (coercion)
4.4a
Updated
Explicit type conversion (casting)
4.4b
New
An introduction to std::string
4.5
Updated
Enumerated types
4.5a
Moved
Enum classes
4.6
Updated
Typedefs
4.7
Updated
Structs
4.x
New
Chapter 4 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 5 Control Flow
5.1
Updated May 22
Control flow introduction
5.2
Updated May 22
If statements
5.3
Updated Jun 17
Switch statements
5.4
Updated Jun 26
Goto statements
5.5
Updated Jun 30
While statements
5.6
Updated Jul 01
Do while statements
5.7 For statements
5.8 Break and continue
5.9 Random number generation
Chapter 6 Arrays, Strings, Pointers, and References
6.1 Arrays (Part I)
6.2 Arrays (Part II)
6.3 Arrays and loops
6.4 Sorting an array using selection sort
6.5 Multidimensional arrays
6.6 C-style strings
6.7 Introduction to pointers
6.8 Pointers, arrays, and pointer arithmetic
6.9 Dynamic memory allocation with new and delete
6.10 Pointers and const
6.11 References
6.12 References vs pointers, and member selection
6.13 Void pointers
 
Chapter 7 Functions
7.1 Function parameters and arguments
7.2 Passing arguments by value
7.3 Passing arguments by reference
7.4 Passing arguments by address
7.4a Returning values by value, reference, and address
7.5 Inline functions
7.6 Function overloading
7.7 Default parameters
7.8 Function pointers
7.9 The stack and the heap
7.10 Recursion
7.11 (“Namespaces” moved to 4.3a)
7.12 Handling errors (assert, cerr, exit, and exceptions)
7.13 Command line arguments
7.14 Ellipses (and why to avoid them)
 
Chapter 8 Basic object-oriented programming
8.1 Welcome to object-oriented programming
8.2 Classes and class members
8.3 Public vs private access specifiers
8.4 Access functions and encapsulation
8.5 Constructors
8.6 Destructors
8.7 The hidden “this” pointer
8.8 Constructors (Part II)
8.9 Class code and header files
8.10 Const class objects and member functions
8.11 Static member variables
8.12 Static member functions
8.13 Friend functions and classes
8.14 Anonymous variables and objects
Chapter 9 Operator overloading
9.1 Introduction to operator overloading
9.2 Overloading the arithmetic operators
9.3 Overloading the I/O operators
9.4 Overloading the comparison operators
9.5 Overloading unary operators +, -, and !
9.6 Overloading operators using member functions
9.7 Overloading the increment and decrement operators
9.8 Overloading the subscript operator
9.9 Overloading the parenthesis operator
9.10 Overloading typecasts
9.11 The copy constructor and overloading the assignment operator
9.12 Shallow vs. deep copying
 
Chapter 10 Composition
10.1 Constructor initialization lists
10.2 Composition
10.3 Aggregation
10.4 Container classes
 
Chapter 11 Inheritance
11.1 Introduction to inheritance
11.2 Basic inheritance in C++
11.3 Order of construction of derived classes
11.4 Constructors and initialization of derived classes
11.5 Inheritance and access specifiers
11.6 Adding, changing, and hiding members in a derived class
11.7 Multiple inheritance
11.8 Virtual base classes
 
Chapter 12 Virtual Functions
12.1 Pointers and references to the base class of derived objects
12.2 Virtual functions and polymorphism
12.3 Virtual destructors, virtual assignment, and overriding virtualization
12.4 Early binding and late binding
12.5 The virtual table
12.6 Pure virtual functions, abstract base classes, and interface classes
 
Chapter 13 Input and output (I/O)
13.1 Input and output (I/O) streams
13.2 Input with istream
13.3 Output with ostream and ios
13.4 Stream classes for strings
13.5 Stream states and input validation
13.6 Basic file I/O
13.7 Random file I/O
 
Chapter 14 Templates
14.1 Function templates
14.2 Function template instances
14.3 Template classes
14.4 Expression parameters and template specialization
14.5 Class template specialization
14.6 Partial template specialization
 
Chapter 15 Exceptions
15.1 The need for exceptions
15.2 Basic exception handling
15.3 Exceptions, functions, and stack unwinding
15.4 Uncaught exceptions, catch-all handlers, and exception specifiers
15.5 Exceptions, classes, and inheritance
15.6 Exception dangers and downsides
 
Chapter 16 The Standard Template Library
16.1 The Standard Template Library (STL)
16.2 STL containers overview
16.3 STL iterators overview
16.4 STL algorithms overview
 
Chapter 17 std::string
17.1 std::string and std::wstring
17.2 std::string construction and destruction
17.3 std::string length and capacity
17.4 std::string character access and conversion to C-style arrays
17.5 std::string assignment and swapping
17.6 std::string appending
17.7 std::string inserting
 
Appendix A Miscellaneous Subjects
A.1 Static and dynamic libraries
A.2 Using libraries with Visual Studio Express 2005
A.3 Using libraries with Code::Blocks
 
Appendix B C++11 (Formerly C++0x)
B.1 Introduction to C++11
B.2 Long long, auto, decltype, nullptr, and enum classes
B.3 Range-based for statements and static_assert
B.4 Initializer lists and uniform initialization
B.5 Delegating constructors
B.6 New virtual function controls (override, final, default, and delete)