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The C++ Tutorial

LearnCpp.com is a free website devoted to teaching you how to program in C++. Whether you’ve had any prior programming experience or not, the tutorials on this site will walk you through all the steps to write, compile, and debug your C++ programs, all with plenty of examples.

Becoming an expert won’t happen overnight, but with a little patience, you’ll get there. And LearnCpp.com will show you the way.


Chapter 0 Introduction / Getting Started
0.1
Introduction to these tutorials
0.2
Introduction to programming languages
0.3
Introduction to C/C++
0.4
Introduction to development
0.5
Installing an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
0.6
Compiling your first program
0.6a
Build configurations
0.7
A few common C++ problems
 
Chapter 1 C++ Basics
1.1
Structure of a program
1.2
Comments
1.3
A first look at variables, initialization, and assignment
1.3a
A first look at cout, cin, endl, the std namespace, and using statements
1.4
A first look at functions and return values
1.4a
A first look at function parameters and arguments
1.4b
Why functions are useful, and how to use them effectively
1.4c
New
A first look at local scope
1.4d
Moved
Keywords and naming identifiers
1.5
A first look at operators
1.6
Whitespace and basic formatting
1.7
Forward declarations and definitions
1.8
Programs with multiple files
1.9
Header files
1.10
A first look at the preprocessor
1.10a
Header guards
1.10b
How to design your first programs
1.11
Debugging your program (stepping and breakpoints)
1.11a
Debugging your program (watching variables and the call stack)
1.12
Chapter 1 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 2 Variables and Fundamental Data Types
2.1
Fundamental variable definition, initialization, and assignment
2.2
Void
2.3
Variable sizes and the sizeof operator
2.4
Integers
2.4a
Fixed-width integers
2.5
Floating point numbers
2.6
Boolean values and an introduction to if statements
2.7
Chars
2.8
Literals
2.9
Const, constexpr, and symbolic constants
2.10
Chapter 2 comprehensive quiz
Chapter 3 Operators
3.1
Operator precedence and associativity
3.2
Arithmetic operators
3.3
Increment/decrement operators, and side effects
3.4
Sizeof, comma, and conditional operators
3.5
Relational operators (comparisons)
3.6
Logical operators
3.7
Converting between binary and decimal
3.8
Bitwise operators
3.8a
Bit flags and bit masks
3.x
Chapter 3 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 4 Variable Scope and More Types
4.1
Blocks (compound statements)
4.1a
Local variables, scope, and duration
4.2
Global variables and linkage
4.2a
Why global variables are evil
4.3
Static duration variables
4.3a
Scope, duration, and linkage summary
4.3b
Namespaces
4.4
Implicit type conversion (coercion)
4.4a
Explicit type conversion (casting)
4.4b
An introduction to std::string
4.5
Enumerated types
4.5a
Enum classes
4.6
Typedefs
4.7
Structs
4.8
The auto keyword
4.x
Chapter 4 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 5 Control Flow
5.1
Control flow introduction
5.2
If statements
5.3
Switch statements
5.4
Goto statements
5.5
While statements
5.6
Do while statements
5.7
For statements
5.8
Break and continue
5.9
Random number generation
5.10
std::cin, extraction, and dealing with invalid text input
5.11
New Sep 8
Introduction to testing your code
5.x
Chapter 5 comprehensive quiz

Chapter 6 Arrays, Strings, Pointers, and References
6.1
Arrays (Part I)
6.2
Arrays (Part II)
6.3
Arrays and loops
6.4
Sorting an array using selection sort
6.5
Multidimensional arrays
6.6
C-style strings
6.7
Introduction to pointers
6.7a
Null pointers
6.8
Pointers and arrays
6.8a
Pointer arithmetic and array indexing
6.8b
C-style string symbolic constants
6.9
Dynamic memory allocation with new and delete
6.9a
Dynamically allocating arrays
6.10
Pointers and const
6.11
Reference variables
6.12
Member selection with pointers and references
6.12a
For each loops
6.13
Void pointers
6.14
Pointers to pointers
6.15
An introduction to std::array
6.16
An introduction to std::vector
6.x
Chapter 6 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 7 Functions
7.1
Function parameters and arguments
7.2
Passing arguments by value
7.3
Passing arguments by reference
7.4
Passing arguments by address
7.4a
Returning values by value, reference, and address
7.5
Inline functions
7.6
Function overloading
7.7
Default parameters
7.8
Function Pointers
7.9
The stack and the heap
7.10
std::vector capacity and stack behavior
7.11
Recursion
7.12
Handling errors (assert, cerr, exit, and exceptions)
7.13
Command line arguments
7.14
Ellipsis (and why to avoid them)
7.x
Chapter 7 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 8 Basic object-oriented programming
8.1
Welcome to object-oriented programming
8.2
Classes and class members
8.3
Public vs private access specifiers
8.4
Access functions and encapsulation
8.5
Updated May 13
Constructors
8.5a
Constructor member initializer lists
8.5b
Non-static member initialization
8.6
Overlapping and delegating constructors
8.7
Destructors
8.8
The hidden “this” pointer
8.9
Class code and header files
8.10
Const class objects and member functions
8.11
Static member variables
8.12
Static member functions
8.13
Friend functions and classes
8.14
Anonymous variables and objects
8.x
Chapter 8 comprehensive quiz
Chapter 9 Operator overloading
9.1
Introduction to operator overloading
9.2
Overloading the arithmetic operators using friend functions
9.2a
New May 23
Overloading operators using normal functions
9.3
Updated Apr 2
Overloading the I/O operators
9.4
Updated Apr 4
Overloading operators using member functions
9.5
Updated Apr 9
Overloading unary operators +, -, and !
9.6
Updated Apr 14
Overloading the comparison operators
9.7
Updated Apr 15
Overloading the increment and decrement operators
9.8
Updated Apr 18
Overloading the subscript operator
9.9
Updated Apr 28
Overloading the parenthesis operator
9.10
Updated Jun 5
Overloading typecasts
9.11
Updated Jun 5
The copy constructor
9.12
Updated Jun 5
Copy initialization
9.13
Updated Jun 5
Converting constructors, explicit, and delete
9.14
Updated Jun 5
Overloading the assignment operator
9.15
Updated Jun 11
Shallow vs. deep copying
9.x
New Aug 9
Chapter 9 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 10 An introduction to object relationships
10.1
New Aug 10
Object relationships
10.2
Updated Aug 12
Composition
10.3
Updated Aug 16
Aggregation
10.4
New Aug 19
Association
10.5
New Aug 23
Dependencies
10.6
Updated Aug 25
Container classes
10.x
New Sep 12
Chapter 10 comprehensive quiz
 
Chapter 11 Inheritance
11.1
Updated Sep 12
Introduction to inheritance
11.2
Updated Sep 21
Basic inheritance in C++
11.3
Updated Sep 21
Order of construction of derived classes
11.4
Updated Sep 22
Constructors and initialization of derived classes
11.5
Updated Sep 23
Inheritance and access specifiers
11.6
Updated Sep 27
Adding, changing, and hiding members in a derived class
11.7 Multiple inheritance
11.8 Virtual base classes
 
Chapter 12 Virtual Functions
12.1 Pointers and references to the base class of derived objects
12.2 Virtual functions and polymorphism
12.3 Virtual destructors, virtual assignment, and overriding virtualization
12.4 Early binding and late binding
12.5 The virtual table
12.6 Pure virtual functions, abstract base classes, and interface classes
 
Chapter 13 Input and output (I/O)
13.1 Input and output (I/O) streams
13.2 Input with istream
13.3 Output with ostream and ios
13.4 Stream classes for strings
13.5 Stream states and input validation
13.6 Basic file I/O
13.7 Random file I/O
 
Chapter 14 Templates
14.1 Function templates
14.2 Function template instances
14.3 Template classes
14.4 Expression parameters and template specialization
14.5 Class template specialization
14.6 Partial template specialization
 
Chapter 15 Exceptions
15.1 The need for exceptions
15.2 Basic exception handling
15.3 Exceptions, functions, and stack unwinding
15.4 Uncaught exceptions, catch-all handlers, and exception specifiers
15.5 Exceptions, classes, and inheritance
15.6 Exception dangers and downsides
 
Chapter 16 The Standard Template Library
16.1 The Standard Template Library (STL)
16.2 STL containers overview
16.3 STL iterators overview
16.4 STL algorithms overview
 
Chapter 17 std::string
17.1 std::string and std::wstring
17.2 std::string construction and destruction
17.3 std::string length and capacity
17.4 std::string character access and conversion to C-style arrays
17.5 std::string assignment and swapping
17.6 std::string appending
17.7 std::string inserting
 
Appendix A Miscellaneous Subjects
A.1 Static and dynamic libraries
A.2 Using libraries with Visual Studio Express 2005
A.3 Using libraries with Code::Blocks
 
Appendix B C++11 (Formerly C++0x)
B.1 Introduction to C++11
B.2 Long long, auto, decltype, nullptr, and enum classes
B.3 Range-based for statements and static_assert
B.4 Initializer lists and uniform initialization
B.5 Delegating constructors
B.6 New virtual function controls (override, final, default, and delete)